This course covers the basics of implementing inter-VLAN routing by explaining the theory behind two common methodologies, as well as their implementation on Cisco routers and switches. By the end of this course students will be able to explain the differences between “Router-On-A-Stick” and “Switched Virtual Interfaces,” as well as how to implement inter-VLAN routing using either of these techniques.

Why You Should Watch:

Virtually all organizations that implement VLANs into their switched networking topologies also need to know how to route IP traffic between those VLANs. Knowing the techniques available to accomplish this kind of routing is essential whether you are managing a network, or simply pursuing a networking certification (like the Cisco CCNA).

Many learners are confused about the differences between VLANs and SVIs (Switched Virtual Interfaces) as well as their inter-relationship. This course is meant to clarify any confusion you may have between those differences, and teach you both the theory and implementation (utilizing Cisco IOS software) of Inter-VLAN Routing.

Who Should Watch:

This course is intended for anyone wanting to learn about inter-VLAN routing with an emphasis on the techniques to do so using Cisco routers and switches. A basic familiarity with the Cisco IOS command line and the basic high-level concepts of VLANs, switches, routers and IP routing are recommended.

About The Instructor

Keith Bogart has been in the IT field since 1998. Keith started as a Customer Service Representative at Cisco Systems, and then transitioned into the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC). For almost twenty years Keith has served as both a Technical Instructor as well as Course Developer for Cisco Systems and (for the past few years) INE. Keith is a Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert, as well as a Cisco Certified Networking Associate. Keith is currently employed as a Technical Instructor and Course Developer at INE.


Since 2003 we’ve been helping IT professionals reach their career goals with help from top notch instructors and training materials. One of our most popular training resources – INE Bootcamps, continue to wow students and are a major step in the journey towards earning your certification. Thinking about signing up but aren’t sure what to expect? Take it from our current students, participating in an INE Bootcamp is the best way to ensure you’ll succeed in passing your certification exams.

CCNA Routing & Switching

I would arguably say that Keith is the best CCNA instructor in the nation. The interaction in this class is key. Listening to a lesson doesn’t ensure comprehension, so Keith offered periodic quizzes; not only did this make the course increasingly interactive but also verified your understanding of the technologies discussed.

I very much look forward to going to the CCNP bootcamps. Thank you again Keith and staff for making my learning experience a great one!
Thomas Osborne – CCNA


The instructor Keith is very knowledgeable, patient, and polite. He covered everything possible with the amount of time we had. I also like the format of having to take routing and switching separately.  
Sirak Zewdie – CCNA


Keith is a very detailed instructor and kept the class engaged throughout the week.  He goes through material in the workbooks, but he also makes sure you have a real world understanding by either showing us through examples on the hardware or drawing it out.  He makes sure there is an understanding before moving forward.    

CCNP Routing & Switching

Keith is a very good mentor. This was my first time attending an in class session and it was a great, informative experience for me. Keith is one gem of an instructor. He was kind, patient and very informative all through the course. The way he explains concepts with his hand gestures and whiteboard diagrams helped me understand them with ease. The lab sessions were the best. I personally loved the way the course was structured and would definitely recommend it for students who are planning to take it. Overall it was more than a lifetime experience for the money I paid.
Satish Devan

Keith was an amazing instructor. Luckily my class had so few people that he knew us by first name. Keith was knowledgeable in every aspect of the CCNP R&S track. You could even throw “scenarios” at him and he would work out the problem in his head. Then he would show you how the logic of the protocols would behave. Keith was able to go very in depth on the routing protocols and that really helped me feel more comfortable with large networks!  
Victor Halili ~ CCNA 2x & CCNP

CCIE Routing & Switching Written

I would like to thank INE and Rohit Pardasani in particular for the great experience I had. This course has provided me with a good idea on how the CCIE exam should be approached in terms of study and preparation. I will highly recommend this training to anybody that is on the same journey as I am. Also, many thanks to the Coordinator in providing all the information needed and answering my questions, this made everything as smooth as I hoped.
Berry Batist

I enjoyed Rohit personally. I would look for him if seeking another workshop. The content/material informed and challenged me. I feel better prepared. 
John Wattenbarger ~ CCNP R&S and Passed CCIE Written October 2017

CCIE Routing & Switching Lab

Dave Smith exceeded my expectations concerning his depth of knowledge of the material covered. I especially appreciated his incorporation of first-hand experience and historical context of the technologies. Relevant anecdotes help to solidify “why” something does what it does, rather than just memorizing. His enthusiasm and passion for networking really do help keep you focused on and listening to everything he says. 
Scott Bridges ~ CCIE #55860, VCP-NV, RCSP-WAN

This will open your eyes to the way you have to be prepared. Knowing the technology is one thing, but knowing different ways to resolve issues with the technologies and why is another! I would strongly recommend that every CCIE candidate take this class!  
Vernado Deal ~ CCNP and CCNAx3 (Voice, R&S, Security)

CCIE Routing & Switching Graded Practice Labs

I thought this class was very beneficial in helping me prepare for my first CCIE lab attempt. It not only tested my knowledge on many aspects within the CCIE blueprint, but also included some of the question semantics and “gotchas” that should be expected on the lab. I do feel like I am better prepared for what I should expect on the actual lab, and I have identified some weak areas that I need to work on before I attempt my lab.
Scott Charles Kitchen – CCNP route & switch and CompTIA Security+

CCIE Collaboration Lab Exam

For my last CCIE, I finally decided to go to a real bootcamp. I’ve made a smart choice with INE’s Collaboration bootcamp taught by 5xCCIE Rohit Pardasani. I highly recommend going to this class when you feel you are about 80-90% ready to take the lab. Rohit will set you on the right path to fill in the remaining gaps!  
Roman Rodichev ~ 8xCCIE #7927, Founder & Chief Solution Architect @ ieMentor

CCIE Security Lab

The class has taught me how to approach the CCIE Lab Exam in a whole different way by showing me better ways to understand technical concepts instead of just memorizing commands, which at the end will be key to continue my certification and career goals. This is by far the best technical training I have received and will certainly be back for more.
Borman Bravo

CCIE Data Center Lab

Brian McGahan is an amazing instructor. He not only explained difficult concepts with ease but also helped in strengthening my basics of networking. He is very friendly to students and addresses even the silliest doubt without any hesitation, which instills confidence to speak your doubts and know that there is someone there for true guidance. I have enjoyed every moment of the class. I would love to attend future bootcamps whose instructor would be Brian McGahan.
Zain Nachiz

The boot camp was outstanding, and Brian was very patient and informative. This one-week boot camp was the equivalent of months of studying on my own.
Matt – CCNP route/switch

CCIE Service Provider Lab

Rohit is an extremely knowledgeable professional. He gave me insight into routing protocols that I never had before.
Doug Gluntz ~ CCNP R&S, BCNP, ACWA


Keith Bogart is one of INE’s most esteemed and experienced instructors. Keith has been with INE for 4 years designing and instructing videos and bootcamps, as well as hosting live web-series, designing workbooks, and contributing to our IEOC Forum and INE Blog. Keith has a CCNA in Routing and Switching, CCIE in Dial-ISP, CWNA and is currently working towards his CCNA Security certification.

Before he was with INE, Keith worked as a service representative, technical assistance engineer and network consulting engineer at Cisco Systems. After 17 years at Cisco and a short time with a small start-up, Keith brought his talents to INE and became our #1 CCNA Routing & Switching instructor.

So what has Keith been up to?

On a typical day you can find Keith in our North Carolina office working on his latest project – a new CCNA Security Bootcamp. This bootcamp is still in its early stages of design, however, according to Keith, it’s shaping up to be a 5-day Bootcamp that will be offered online at least twice in the first half of 2019.


This course is taught by Atindra Chaturvedi and is 6 hours and 38 minutes long. You view the video on our streaming site, or purchase it at

The VMware NSX 6.4 product release expands the capabilities of VMware in the Software Defined Data Center (SDDC) domain. This will be primarily a whiteboard discussion based course with some labs to set the context for the design discussion. Design aspects, limitations and good practice for the overlay network provided by NSX 6.4 will be covered. The latest advances in the data center network provided by Cisco with BGP EVPN and other technologies will be covered from the design perspective as an underlay for the NSX virtualized network. The course is geared to networking and virtualization professionals proficient at a CCNA or CCNP level of experience and knowledge.


Are you lost in a sea of AWS? Then get your head in the clouds with INE’s AWS Overview Course, brought to you by Peter and Geoff Douglas. This Video includes over 7 hours of content which will take you through every AWS service explaining the ins and outs of how you would use them.

This course it great for beginners or professionals. The Douglas brothers cover all of the services in AWS, walking you through overviews, deep dives and use cases. They also cover security and networking, the two essentials for getting up to speed, continuing through computing and storage. It doesn’t stop there, the course also covers topics like Big Data and the Internet of Things.

Join Peter and Geoff in a conversational look at all of the AWS services and you will walk away with a better understanding of all that Amazon has to offer. With over 30 years combined experience, these brothers will share their real word experience on AWS and other insights that will help you make more informed decisions when choosing cloud services.


This 6 hour course is designed for those that are preparing for the CISA exam. Expert instructor, Etienne Poeder, explains what to expect from this course, as well as who the course is designed for below:

The amount of effort required to ace this exam will depend on both your relevant knowledge and experience. Mere knowledge is insufficient for passing the exam because the exam doesn’t just test your familiarity with exam topics, but also your ability to actually apply your skills and education. An accounting/non-IS auditing background prior to this exam will likely work, but it is going to be more challenging with regard to your technical IT knowledge. As for the more techie professional, you will probably already understand the security and technology basics, but still need to show whether you understand the do’s and don’ts within auditing and related area’s in different types of organizations and architectures.

Whether you are an auditor or security professional, you can benefit from this course. I have done my best making sure we hit the ground running with the preparation for your exam. If you lack both the auditing as well as the technical knowledge/experience, this course will still benefit you, but it will be more challenging. You will need to prepare properly for the CISA exam to ace it. Of course, I will give you exam tips along the way and practical examples within the IT Audit security job practice to make studying a less bitter pill to swallow.

I will cover all 5 domains, which will summarize the most current information from the revised book according to the 2016 CISA Job Practice. This book is the most comprehensive peer-reviewed IS Audit, assurance, security and control resource available worldwide.

I have added assessment questions so you can test your knowledge and become more familiarized with the question types, structures and topics featured in the CISA exam. I have made a fine representative selection of questions, extracted from a 1,000 multiple-choice study exam that has previously appeared in the CISA Review Questions, Answers and Explained manual 2015 and the CISA Review Questions, Answers & Explanations Manual 2015 Supplement, both current and in accordance with the newly revised 2016 Job Practice.

So you want to be a professional auditor?

Go get your proper assistance for the CISA exam today!


Did you know it’s our birthday? 15 years ago, INE officially opened its doors and became your #1 trusted training partner. However, we didn’t experience overnight success, we’ve worked hard to earn our place in the IT training community. Take a quick look at how we’ve grown over the years.

We’re so grateful for all of our loyal customers, we certainly wouldn’t be where we are today without your feedback and support. Help us celebrate by telling us how INE has helped you succeed here, and receive a gift card for a free t-shirt!



You may recall that, when using Named-Mode EIGRP configuration you have automatic access to EIGRP Wide Metrics.  In addition to providing you a new K-Value (K6 which is used against Jitter and Energy) the EIGRP Distance formula has been revised (what they call, “scaled”) to account for links above-and-beyond 10Gbps.  Remember that with Classic-Mode EIGRP, the formula looked like this:

metric = ([K1 * bandwidth + (K2 * bandwidth) / (256 - load) + K3 * delay] * [K5 / (reliability + K4)]) * 256

In the formula, the “**bandwidth**” value was represented as:

BW = 10^7 / minimum BW


In the formula above, the “minimum BW” was represented as Kbps. The problem with this “classic” method was all links with a bandwidth higher than 10Gbps (10,000,000,000 bps, represented as 10,000,000 Kbps in the formula) were given the same BW value as 10Gbps.  In other words, whether you put a single link of 10Gbps into that formula,  a link of 40Gbps, or an Etherchannel with a combined bandwidth of 80Gbps…they all equated to “1″. So in Classic Mode EIGRP, EIGRP couldn’t distinguish between these types of links to develop an accurate path to a destination.

When EIGRP Wide-Metrics were developed, Cisco applied an “EIGRP_WIDE_SCALE” factor against some portions of the formula (which equates to the value of 65,536) to account for faster links (as well as smaller delay values).  They also changed the terminology in the formula from “bandwidth” to “throughput”. So now the “new” formula for EIGRP Wide-Metrics does the following to the “minimum bandwidth” portion of the formula:

Minimum Throughput = (10^7 * 65536)/Bw), (remember that Bw is in Kbps) where 65536 is the “EIGRP_WIDE_SCALE” constant.

By multiplying 10^7 against 65,536 EIGRP, Wide-Metrics can now accurately differentiate between links of any speed/bandwidth. EIGRP Wide-Metrics also multiply this value of 65,536 (the “EIGRP_WIDE_SCALE” constant) against the Delay sum.

But here’s the problem,  the computed value of this new formula might NOT FIT into the IP Routing Table (called the “RIB” – Routing Information Base).

When you view the output of “show ip route” for any given route, you see two values contained in brackets.  For an EIGRP-learned route, the first number in the brackets represents the Administrative Distance.  The second value represents what I call the “EIGRP Distance”.  Others call this simply the route “metric” or “EIGRP Composite Cost”.  No matter what term you use, this field in the RIB is only 4-bytes long.


Here is the problem,  EIGRP wide metrics (because they have an “EIGRP_WIDE_SCALE” multiplier of 65,536 used against several of the vector-metrics such as bandwidth and delay) could come up with a distance value so large…that the resulting distance value doesn’t FIT within a 4-byte value in the RIB.

The maximum decimal value that can be contained within a 4-byte number is 4,294,967,296.  However, if you were to place one’s (1′s) in each placeholder the EIGRP wide-metrics formula, the resultant bandwidth value (by itself) would be so large that it would break the boundaries of a 4-byte placeholder in the RIB:

BW = (10^7 * 65536)/1) = 655,360,000,000

and that is even BEFORE adding the sum-of-the-delays into the mix.:

((K1*[655,360,000,000) + (K2*Scaled Bw)/(256 – Load) + (K3*Scaled Delay)*(K5/(Reliability + K4)))

The result would be, that while EIGRP was able to calculate a Distance value, that value would be too large to be placed into the RIB. This could happen in a couple of scenarios:

  • An EIGRP packet containing a really slow-speed link in the path (like a 56Kbps dialup link)
  • Redistribution of other protocols into EIGRP, and selecting a “bandwidth” value (within the “metric” keyword) that was too low.

Bandwidth is too small

And so here’s the rub…EIGRP Wide-Metrics supply the ability to differentiate between links of all kinds of different bandwidth values (due to the additional “EIGRP_WIDE_SCALE” factor of 65,536) but the resultant EIGRP Distance value could be too large to fit into the 4-byte “Metric” field within the RIB. If that were the case, this is what you’d see (notice the words, “FD is Infinity” below for the EIGRP routes to as well as

Well…those engineers at Cisco were pretty smart and incorporated a special little “tweak” into Wide-Metrics to account for just this problem. This tweak is called the “metric rib-scale”. What this does, is to take all EIGRP Feasible Distance values (which may-or-may-not be too large to fit into the 4-byte RIB “metric” value) and DIVIDE THEM by a value called…you guessed it, the “metric rib-scale”. The default value of the “metric rib-scale” is 128 which, for most normal routes, is enough to bring them down to size to fit into the RIB. This value can be seen in the following output:

This explains why, when viewing the EIGRP Topology Table, an entry for a prefix will display both the 64-bit EIGRP Distance value…as well as the “scaled” values (that was divided by 128) as the “RIB” value:

And here you can see that scaled RIB metric reflected in the IP Routing Table (since the original EIGRP Feasible Distance was too large to fit):

But sometimes, the 64-bit Feasible Distance of a route is so large, that scaling/dividing it by the default RIB-Scale value of 128 simply isn’t enough. As I previously showed you, these types of EIGRP Topology entries will show as “FD is Infinity”. It is for this reason, that one may need to adjust this value to a larger RIB-Scale factor (using the EIGRP command, “metric rib-scale”) such that the resulting quotient is small enough to fit into the RIB.

For example, let’s take a look at this output again…

Even if we divide the FD of 656,671,375,360 by the default RIB-Scale value of 128 the quotient would be 5,130,245,120 which is still larger than our maximum allowable RIB metric of 4,294,967,296. It is for this reason that we would need to adjust the RIB-Scale value to something else (larger than 128) to create a quotient that was smaller than 4,294,967,296. The RIB-Scale is a configurable number between “1″ and “255″. So by increasing the number beyond the default of 128 we can create quotients that are small enough to fit within the RIB (IP Routing Table).

So let’s apply a new RIB-Scale value to EIGRP and see how that same route, which was previously listed as “Infinity” can fit into the RIB;

(BEFORE…with the default RIB-Scale value)


(AFTER applying a larger RIB-Scale value)



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This course is taught by Esteban Herrera and is 3hours and 28 minutes long. You can view the course here if you’re an All Access Pass member.

About The Course:

The Certificate of Cloud Security Knowledge (CCSK) certification is currently one of the most important cloud computing certifications you can get. The Cloud Security Knowledge Certification addresses core security concepts in cloud computing such as governance and enterprise risk management, compliance and audit management, infrastructure, virtualization & containers, data security & encryption, and much more. This course will be based on the documentation provided by Cloud Security Alliance.


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